Method-1 :

There is no specific command available in Linux to do this, hence we are using more than one command (all together) to get this done.

# find / -type f -print0 | xargs -0 du -h | sort -rh | head -n 10

1.4G	/swapfile
1.1G	/home/magi/ubuntu-17.04-desktop-amd64.iso
564M	/home/magi/.gdfuse/magi/cache/0B5nso_FPaZFqTFU0XzkzUlJUZzA
378M	/home/magi/.gdfuse/magi/cache/0B5nso_FPaZFqeldzUmhPeC03Zm8
377M	/home/magi/.gdfuse/magi/cache/0B5nso_FPaZFqRGd4V0VrOXM4YVU
100M	/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libOxideQtCore.so.0
93M	/usr/lib/firefox/libxul.so
84M	/var/lib/snapd/snaps/core_3604.snap
84M	/var/lib/snapd/snaps/core_3440.snap
84M	/var/lib/snapd/snaps/core_3247.snap

Details :
find : It’s a command, Search for files in a directory hierarchy.
/ : Check in the whole system (starting from / directory)
-type : File is of type
f : Regular file
-print0 : Print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a null character
| : Control operator that send the output of one program to another program for further processing.
xargs : It’s a command, which build and execute command lines from standard input.
-0 : Input items are terminated by a null character instead of by whitespace
du -h : It’s a command to calculate disk usage with human readable format
sort : It’s a command, Sort lines of text files
-r : Reverse the result of comparisons
-h : Print the output with human readable format
head : It’s a command, Output the first part of files
n -10 : Print the first 10 files.

Method-2 :

This is an another way to find or check top 10 largest files in Linux system. Here also, we are putting few commands together to achieve this.

# find / -type f -exec du -Sh {} + | sort -rh | head -n 10

1.4G	/swapfile
1.1G	/home/magi/ubuntu-17.04-desktop-amd64.iso
564M	/home/magi/.gdfuse/magi/cache/0B5nso_FPaZFqTFU0XzkzUlJUZzA
378M	/home/magi/.gdfuse/magi/cache/0B5nso_FPaZFqeldzUmhPeC03Zm8
377M	/home/magi/.gdfuse/magi/cache/0B5nso_FPaZFqRGd4V0VrOXM4YVU
100M	/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libOxideQtCore.so.0
93M	/usr/lib/firefox/libxul.so
84M	/var/lib/snapd/snaps/core_3604.snap
84M	/var/lib/snapd/snaps/core_3440.snap
84M	/var/lib/snapd/snaps/core_3247.snap

Details :
find : It’s a command, Search for files in a directory hierarchy.
/ : Check in the whole system (starting from / directory)
-type : File is of type

f : Regular file
-exec : This variant of the -exec action runs the specified command on the selected files
du : It’s a command to estimate file space usage.

-S : Do not include size of subdirectories
-h : Print sizes in human readable format
{} : Summarize disk usage of each FILE, recursively for directories.

| : Control operator that send the output of one program to another program for further processing.
sort : It’s a command, Sort lines of text files
-r : Reverse the result of comparisons

-h : Compare human readable numbers
head : It’s a command, Output the first part of files
n -10 : Print the first 10 files.

Method-3 :

It’s an another method to find or search top 10 largest files in Linux system.

# find / -type f -print0 | xargs -0 du | sort -n | tail -10 | cut -f2 | xargs -I{} du -sh {}

84M	/var/lib/snapd/snaps/core_3247.snap
84M	/var/lib/snapd/snaps/core_3440.snap
84M	/var/lib/snapd/snaps/core_3604.snap
93M	/usr/lib/firefox/libxul.so
100M	/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libOxideQtCore.so.0
377M	/home/magi/.gdfuse/magi/cache/0B5nso_FPaZFqRGd4V0VrOXM4YVU
378M	/home/magi/.gdfuse/magi/cache/0B5nso_FPaZFqeldzUmhPeC03Zm8
564M	/home/magi/.gdfuse/magi/cache/0B5nso_FPaZFqTFU0XzkzUlJUZzA
1.1G	/home/magi/ubuntu-17.04-desktop-amd64.iso
1.4G	/swapfile

Details :
find : It’s a command, Search for files in a directory hierarchy.
/ : Check in the whole system (starting from / directory)
-type : File is of type

f : Regular file
-print0 : Print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a null character
| : Control operator that send the output of one program to another program for further processing.

xargs : It’s a command, which build and execute command lines from standard input.
-0 : Input items are terminated by a null character instead of by whitespace
du : It’s a command to estimate file space usage.

sort : It’s a command, Sort lines of text files
-n : Compare according to string numerical value
tail -10 : It’s a command, output the last part of files (last 10 files)

cut : It’s a command, remove sections from each line of files
-f2 : Select only these fields value.
-I{} : Replace occurrences of replace-str in the initial-arguments with names read from standard input.

-s : Display only a total for each argument
-h : Print sizes in human readable format
{} : Summarize disk usage of each FILE, recursively for directories.

Method-4 :

It’s an another method to find or search top 10 largest files in Linux system.

# find / -type f -ls | sort -k 7 -r -n | head -10 | column -t | awk '{print $7,$11}'

1494845440       /swapfile
1085984380       /home/magi/ubuntu-17.04-desktop-amd64.iso
591003648        /home/magi/.gdfuse/magi/cache/0B5nso_FPaZFqTFU0XzkzUlJUZzA
395770383        /home/magi/.gdfuse/magi/cache/0B5nso_FPaZFqeldzUmhPeC03Zm8
394891761        /home/magi/.gdfuse/magi/cache/0B5nso_FPaZFqRGd4V0VrOXM4YVU
103999072        /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libOxideQtCore.so.0
97356256         /usr/lib/firefox/libxul.so
87896064         /var/lib/snapd/snaps/core_3604.snap
87793664         /var/lib/snapd/snaps/core_3440.snap
87089152         /var/lib/snapd/snaps/core_3247.snap

Details :
find : It’s a command, Search for files in a directory hierarchy.
/ : Check in the whole system (starting from / directory)
-type : File is of type

f : Regular file
-ls : List current file in ls -dils format on standard output.
| : Control operator that send the output of one program to another program for further processing.

sort : It’s a command, Sort lines of text files
-k : start a key at POS1
-r : Reverse the result of comparisons

-n : Compare according to string numerical value
head : It’s a command, Output the first part of files
-10 : Print the first 10 files.

column : It’s a command, formats its input into multiple columns.
-t : Determine the number of columns the input contains and create a table.
awk : It’s a command, Pattern scanning and processing language
'{print $7,$11}' : Print only mentioned column.